WHAT IS BITUMEN PENETRATION GRADE:
For thousands of years before the first civilization in Sumer, the substance we call bitumen was already prized as an adhesive the result, apparently, of an ancient hunter’s discovery that he
could attach his flint arrowhead to a shaft with a sticky black substance found in a nearby
The term “bitumen” refers to the tar-like petroleum deposits found in oil sands. Generally, this thick, black, viscous crude oil must be heated or diluted with hydrocarbons before it will flow.
The terms “bitumen” and “bitumens, oxidized” may be used interchangeably with “asphalt” and “asphalt, oxidized”, respectively. Other synonyms for bitumen are “Asphaltic bitumen”, “Asphaltum”, and “Petroleum asphalt”. When sold in its natural state, bitumen is used only for road paving; it must be processed rigorously for use in gasoline and diesel fuel production.
The penetration of a bitumen specimen may be defined as the distance in tenths of a millimeter (1/10mm) to which a standard needle penetrates the material under known conditions of time, loading and temperature. The grade of semisolid and solid bituminous material is usually designated by the penetration and the bitumen price will be different based on the grade.
GENERAL PROPERTIES OF BITUMEN ARE AS FOLLOWS:
- Most bitumens are colloidal in nature.
- Bitumen are thermoplastics.
- They have no specific melting, boiling or freezing point .
- They are insoluble in water.
- They are highly impermeable to the passage of water.
- They are generally hydrophobic.
- They are chemically inert.
- They oxidize slowly.
WHAT IS SODIUM BICARBONATE, USES AND SPECIFICATIONS:
Sodium bicarbonate is a white, crystalline solid. The natural mineral form is known as nahcolite. It is also produced artificially. Sodium bicarbonate is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt composed of sodium ions and bicarbonate ions.
Since it has long been known and is widely used, the salt has many related names such as baking soda, bread soda, cooking soda, bicarbonate of soda. Colloquially, its name is shortened to sodium bicarb.It is used primarily in animal feed as a rumen buffer (digestive aid) or as a chemical leavening agent in baking (an alternative to yeast in making baked goods rise). Other uses include detergents and cleaning products, water softening agents and pH adjustment. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate).
Sodium bicarbonate suppliers around the world now are producing this product in two different grades, 1- Sodium bicarbonate Food Grade, ۲-Sodium bicarbonate Feed Additive, Sodium Bicarbonate price is depend on different factors and the grade and also the process it is produced.
Baking soda is another name for sodium bicarbonate. At temperatures above 300 degrees Fahrenheit (149 degrees Celsius), baking soda decomposes into sodium carbonate (a more stable substance), water, and carbon dioxide.
The native chemical and physical properties of baking soda account for its wide range of applications, including cleaning, deodorizing, buffering, and fire extinguishing. Baking soda neutralizes odors chemically, rather than masking or absorbing them.
Consequently, it is used in bath salts and deodorant body powders. Baking soda tends to maintain a pH of 8.1 (7 is neutral) even when acids, which lower pH, or bases, which raise pH, are added to the solution. Its ability to tabletize makes it a good effervescent ingredient in antacids and denture cleaning products.